A bit too vague as to what you mean. And might be a good idea to describe your exact configuration. (Nav? RES? 10-speaker audio?)
If you have no RES, you should have a fairly large storage pocket under climate controls. Main radio unit is only 4.5" wide x 1.375" tall x 6.75" long, so should be fairly easy to mount it into that pocket - you will need to cut into the pocket plastic a bit though.
For power, you should be able to just tap into the wires going to the accessory socket.
Sound output: That radio output spec is '7W into 8 Ohms' Which is several times higher than a typical smartphone jack output, You can try plugging a male-male audio cable from radio to car's AUX, but be real careful with the radio's Volume control.
If you want to be able to use and hear radio while listening to other stuff - like music - then you need to install a dedicated speaker for the radio. A good spot for it would be under the top dashboard panel - that is where center speaker goes for 10-speaker premium audio system. If you already got a 10-speaker system, you will need to look for some other spot.
The key thing to work on is positioning the antenna. You may prefer a mag mount over a permanent mount. Personally my wheeling truck has both a CB radio and GMRS (license required). Everyone has flipped to GMRS due to its far greater range. My CB rarely gets used unless thats all someone in the group has.
Do a little searching here for mounting hints. Your "ham radio" title is somewhat different from a CB question; Actual ham radio options include units with a detachable control head. That control head gets mounted with an angle piece and velcro in the center cubby, so the sliding door can close and hide it. As Rocky suggests, the antenna is the fun part. Transceiver deck goes in the left rear cubby, with power via the trailer tow battery charge wiring. The antenna lead passes out by the tail light, runs up the rear door and window channel to a fold-over antenna mount on the roof rail. A very compact UHF/VHF antenna rides on that most of the time so not much worry about it hitting the garage door. Same antenna option exists for Rocky's GMRS recommendation, but CB needs a much longer antenna mast to work much further than you can see. His mag-mount recommendation is good, as it will get knocked down when you accidentally drive into the garage with it up.
Visit your local (state) rules about using a handheld microphone while driving. Most have a blanket rule that basically covers holding a cellphone while driving, and has only a few limited exceptions. Here in Oregon, one of the exceptions is for licensed amateur radio operators. Getting a technician-class amateur radio license is pretty simple, with local clubs offering classes and testing. Kind of like contractor license classes, you learn how to pass the test. Small fee for the class and test to cover expenses only, many free, and you can hold your CB microphone legally while driving.